Partnership Dialogue 3 - Minimizing and addressing ocean acidification

Introduction

Ocean acidification is a threat to marine organisms, ecosystems, services, and resources. It has potentially considerable ecological and socio-economic consequences, adding to multiple stressors on ocean ecosystems, including other climate-driven changes (e.g. ocean warming, sea level rise, and deoxygenation) and local pressures from pollution, overexploitation, and habitat destruction.

One fourth of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is absorbed by the ocean.1 However, this vital service is not without consequence: when carbon dioxide enters the ocean it changes seawater chemistry, resulting in increased seawater acidity. That change severely affects biological processes, with potentially profound socio-economic impacts.

The long-term control of ocean acidification depends on the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In this regard, ratification and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement will be instrumental. Even if carbon dioxide emissions are reduced immediately, there will be a lag time before the acidity levels of oceans normalize, particularly since more acidic surface ocean waters mix with deep water over a cycle that lasts hundreds of years. Therefore, it is critical to build the resilience of ocean ecosystems and of the people that depend on them for their livelihoods to the effects of ocean acidification and climate change.

Co-chairs

  • Prince Albert II of Monaco
  • H.E. Mr. Agostinho Mondlane, Minister of the Sea, Inland Waters and Fisheries, Mozambique

Moderator

  • Mr. Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General, World Meteorological Organization

    Panellists

    • Cardinal Turkson, Head of the Dicastery for Integral Human Development, Holy See
    • Ms. Rahanna Juman, Deputy Director, Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago
    • Mr. David Osborn, Director of the IAEA Environment Laboratories
    • Ms. Carol Turley, PML Senior Scientist, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK

    Registered List of Participants

    States

    First preference (speaking slot guaranteed)

    • Palau (HS)
    • Tuvalu (HG)
    • Iceland (M)

    Second preference (possible speaking slot)

    • New Zealand (M)
    • Vanuatu (M)
    • Finland (CD)
    • United States (CD)
    • France (TBD)

    Other participants and observers

    • European Investment Bank
    • International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
    • International Organization for Migration
    • Business and Industry Major Group
    • Centre Scientifique de Monaco
    • Other Stakeholders Major Group
    • Peace Boat
    • The Ocean Foundation
    • Zero Vision Tool
    Biographies (alphabetical order)
    Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson
    Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, Archbishop emeritus of Cape Coast (Ghana)
    Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson

    Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, Archbishop emeritus of Cape Coast (Ghana)

    Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, Archbishop emeritus of Cape Coast (Ghana), was born on 11 October 1948 in Nsuta-Wassaw, Ghana.

    He attended St. Teresa’s Seminary from 1962-1969 in Amisano and St. Peter’s Regional Seminary in Pedu from 1969-1971.
    On 20 July 1975 he was ordained priest for the Archdiocese of Cape Coast.
    He then continued his studies in Rome at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, earning a license in Sacred Scripture (1976-1980), and then began work on his doctoral thesis (1987-1992). He also holds master degrees in Theology and Divinity from St. Anthony-on-Hudson, Conv. Franciscan Seminary, New York.
    From 1975-76 and 1980-1981 he served as staff member at St Theresa’s Seminary, and from 1981-1987 as staff member at St Peter’s Seminary. He was Acting Chaplain and Lecturer at the University of Cape Coast (1984-1986) and Visiting Lecturer at the Catholic Major Seminary, Anyama, Ivory Coast (1983-1986). He has been a Chancellor of the Catholic University College of Ghana since 2003.
    On 6 October 1992 he was appointed Archbishop of Cape Coast and received episcopal ordination on 27 March 1993.
    He served as president of the Ghana Catholic Bishops’ Conference (1997-2004). He was a member of Governing Council of the University of Ghana, Legon (2001-2006) and of the Board of Directors of Central Region Development Commission (CEDECOM) (2002-2006). He served as treasurer of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM) (2007-2009) and presently serves as Vice President of the Association of Episcopal Conferences of Anglophone West Africa (AECAWA). He served as President of the Regional Episcopal Conference of West Africa (RECOWA) (2007-2010).
    He was also Chairman of the Ghana Chapter of the Conference of Religions for Peace (2003-2007) and Ghana National Peace Council (2006-2010).
    On 24 October 2009 he was nominated President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace.
    On 1 January 2017 he was nominated by Pope Francis as Prefect of the new Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, which englobes the former Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Pontifical Council Cor Unum, Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, and Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers.
    He has been awarded numerous honorary degrees and speaks 6 languages (Fante, English, French, Italian, German, Hebrew).
    Created and proclaimed Cardinal by St. John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003, of the Title of S. Liborio (St. Liborius).
    He was General Relator of the 2nd Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace. 'You are the salt of the earth, ... you are the light of the world'" (4-25 October 2009).
    He was also Head of the Holy See Delegation for the Paris Agreement.
    Member of:
    • Congregation: for the Doctrine of the Faith; for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; for the Evangelization of Peoples; for Catholic Education;
    • Pontifical Councils: for Promoting Christian Unity; Cor Unum;
    • Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses;
    • XIII Ordinary Council of the Secretariat General of the Synod of Bishops;
    • II Special Council for Africa of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops.

    H.E. Mr. Agostinho Salvador Mondlane
    Minister of the Sea, Inland Waters and Fisheries, Republic of Mozambique
    H.E. Mr. Agostinho Salvador Mondlane

    Minister of the Sea, Inland Waters and Fisheries, Republic of Mozambique

    PROFESSIONAL HISTORY

    Agostinho Salvador MONDLANE has an academic background in economics and business management and is currently the Minister of the Sea, Inland Waters and Fisheries of the Republic of Mozambique.

    His top level Governmental carrier started sixteen years ago, in 1995, at the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (as Vice-Minister, 1995-2000) and later at the Ministry of Defense (Vice-Minister, 2007-2014, and Minister from 2014-2015).

    His professional carrier extends also to the private sector operations in a set of national enterprises where from 1984 to 2007 was assigned to different positions and responsibilities ranging from head of division to CEO.

    Agostinho Salvador MONDLANE was born in 1959 in Maputo, Mozambique, is married and has five children.

    Maputo, August 2016

    H.S.H. Prince Albert, Alexandre, Louis, Pierre
    Sovereign Prince of Monaco
    H.S.H. Prince Albert, Alexandre, Louis, Pierre

    Sovereign Prince of Monaco

    H.S.H. Prince Albert, Alexandre, Louis, Pierre, Sovereign Prince of Monaco, was born on 14 March 1958.
    • Studies
    • International
    • Domestically
    • A commitment to Sport on a World level
    His Highness is the son of Prince Rainier III, Louis Henri-Maxence-Bertrand (31st May 1923 - 6th April 2005) and Princess Grace, née Kelly (Philadelphia, United States, 12th November 1929 - Monaco, 14th September 1982).
    H.S.H. Prince Albert II succeeded his father, Prince Rainier III who died on 6h April 2005. On 12th July 2005, at the end of the period of official mourning, the Prince's accession to the throne was celebrated.
    Since 1984, H.S.H. Prince Albert had assisted his father in conducting the affairs of State.
    STUDIES
    1976: H.S.H. Prince Albert II obtained his baccalauréat "with distinction" at the end of his secondary school studies at Lycée Albert 1st in Monaco.
    1976 to 1977: familiarisation courses with different branches of the Principality's Government.
    1977 to 1981: H.S.H. Prince Albert II studied political science, economics, psychology, English literature, the history of art, anthropology, geology, philosophy, sociology, German and music at Amherst College, Massachusetts, in the United States.
    During the summer of 1979, H.S.H. Prince Albert toured Europe and the Middle East with the "Amherst College Glee Club" Choir.
    30th May 1981: H.S.H. Prince Albert II graduated in political science. His degree was awarded to him in the presence of his parents, Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace, and his sister, Princess Caroline.
    September 1981 - April 1982: H.S.H. Prince Albert II trained on board the French Navy's helicopter-carrier "Jeanne d'Arc", with the rank of Ship-of-the-Line Ensign (2nd class). His Highness is currently a reserve Lieutenant Commander.
    January 1983 to late 1985: training courses with various international groups in the United States and Europe in the fields of communication, financial management and marketing ("Morgan Guaranty Trust", in New York, "Moët-Hennesy", in Paris, "Rogers & Wells" law firm,"Wells Rich and Greene" in New York.
    20th September 1996: H.S.H. Prince Albert II received an Honorary Doctorate in philosophy from the Pontifical University of Maynooth in Ireland.
    26th October 2000: His Serene Highness was made an Honorary Professor of International Studies at Tarrant County College, Forth Worth, Texas.
    19th June 2009: H.S.H. Prince Albert II received the distinction of Commander of the Order of the Academic Palms.
    20th October 2009: HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco was awarded The Teddy Roosevelt Medal at the United States Congress in Washington.
    23rd October 2009: HSH the Sovereign Prince was awarded the « Roger Revelle » prize at the University of California, San Diego.
    6th November 2009: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was awarded The Docteur Honoris Causa Insignia of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis University.
    22nd September 2010: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was made an Honorary Member of the Geographical Society of Russia.
    19th October 2010: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was made an Honorary Member of the Ligurian Academy of Science and Letters and of the Italian Geographical society.
    21st October 2010: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was elevated to the rank of Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion by the President of the Replublic of Senegal.
    29th March 2011: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was awarded The Docteur Honoris Causa Insignia at The Portalis Law and Political Science Institute of Aix en Provence.
    13 February 2012: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was appointed Grand Croix of the National Order of Mali
    17 February 2012: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was appointed Grand Officier of the National Order of Burkina Faso
    8 December 2015: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was appointed Commander of the Ordre National du Mérite Maritime
    1 March 2016: H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco received the distinction of Membre de la Légion de Marathon

    INTERNATIONAL
    H.S.H. Prince Albert has travelled all over the world including visits to France, Italy, the United States, Russia, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, and China. In these countries he was received by the principal heads of State and political and economic leaders.
    At the same time, he receives credentials from over fifty countries which now maintain diplomatic relations with the Principality.
    Since 28th May 1993, the Prince has led the Monegasque delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations. Since the opening of the 48th Session in September 1993 in New York, His Highness has regularly taken the floor on behalf of the Principality of Monaco.
    At the 36th Plenary Assembly of the Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM) held in the Principality from 21st to 28th September 2001, representatives of the member states unanimously elected Monaco to head the Commission. H.S.H. Prince Albert II, Head of the Monegasque delegation, chairs this Commission.
    Created at the beginning of the century on the initiative of Prince Albert I, the CIESM is an intergovernmental body with 23 member states, 20 of which are located along the Mediterranean coast. Its objectives are to promote multilateral international research and facilitate the exchange of information, in particular between countries on the north and south sides of the Mediterranean Sea. The CIESM cooperates with 500 specialised institutes.
    On 5th October 2004, H.S.H. the Prince presided over the delegation of Monaco in Strasbourg for the official ceremony of accession of the Principality to the Council of Europe as the 46th member state of that organisation.
    In April 2006, H.S.H. Prince Albert II visited the North Pole by dog sled from the Russian base of Barneo 120 kilometres away. This journey was the opportunity for him to pay tribute to his great-great grandfather, Prince Albert I of Monaco, a pioneer of modern oceanography, who, in 1906, set out to Spitzberg, in the archipelago of Svalbard, the most successful of his four Arctic exploration campaigns.The trip also helped to raise the world's awareness of the planetary challenges which, in the short term, represent risks related to climate change and the dangers of industrial pollution.
    In June 2006, H.S.H. the Prince set up the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation dedicated to protecting the environment. It encourages sustainable and fair management of natural resources and places man at the centre of its projects. It supports the implementation of innovative and ethical solutions in three broad areas: climate change, water and biodiversity.
    In January 2009, Prince Albert II of Monaco undertook a three week scientific journey in the Antarctic. He visited a large number of scientific stations and rejoined the South Pole in the company of the explorer Mike Horn. They made a film of this journey "Antarctique 2009, Terre en Alerte" [Antarctic 2009, Earth on Alert] which was presented to the Principality's inhabitants in April 2009.
    DOMESTICALLY
    H.S.H. Prince Albert II has proved to be particularly concerned with the Principality's economic development in a spirit of ethics and transparency. He is committed to a policy of developing facilities and conducting major works, enabling in particular the construction of a new hospital (the Princess Grace General Hospital), the creation of community facilities (hotel school, new secondary school) on "abandoned" railway tracks and the launch of many operations, accommodating social housing and offices.
    Various initiatives have been conducted with a view to promoting economic activity and making company operations more transparent while maintaining a high level of ethics:
    • creation of the legal status of Limited Liability Company,
    • introduction of the offence of tax fraud into Monegasque criminal law,
    • introduction of the general principle of the criminal liability of people,
    • adoption of systems to combat money laundering, organised crime and corruption.
    H.S.H. Prince Albert is committed to carrying out an exemplary policy in his country in terms of the environment, by favouring the development of public transport, ecological vehicles, renewable energies and high environmental quality buildings.
    In the field of Human Rights, during the first years of the reign of H.S.H. Prince Albert II, several important legislative modifications emerged, in particular:
    • the introduction and regulation of custody, the establishment of a judicial system for telephone taps, the restructuring and rationalisation of temporary detention procedures and the reorganisation of the in absentia procedure,
    • the strengthening of the judicial protection of individuals, their personal data and their private life, as part of the exponential growth in new technologies,
    • the reaffirmation of the principle of freedom of expression for the media and the organisation of a system of responsibility within the respect of basic human rights and public order,
    • the modernisation of the law on education (integration of handicapped children) and the increased protection of child rights,
    • the introduction of the principle of freedom of association and different laws on the transfer of nationality aimed at perfect equality between men and women.
    A COMMITMENT TO SPORT ON A WORLD LEVEL
    HSH the Prince participated in five Olympic Games, from Calgary in 1988 to Salt Lake City in 2002, as a member of the national bobsleigh team. A member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, He is President of the Monegasque Olympic Committee.
    He is Honorary President of the International Union of Modern Pentathlon and the International Athletics Foundation.
    He is also a member of the Honorary Board of the International Paralympic Committee.
    Since 2007, He is Patron of the International Organization Peace & Sport " l'Organisation pour la Paix par le Sport" and Patron of the World Olympians Association since 2011
    2014 - Chairman of the IOC Sport and Environment Commission.

    Mr. David Osborn
    Director of the IAEA Environment Laboratories
    Mr. David Osborn

    Director of the IAEA Environment Laboratories

    Mr David Osborn joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as Director, Environment Laboratories, in Monaco in January 2013. During that time he has focussed the work of the laboratories around four key environmental challenges, namely: environmental radioactivity; coastal pollution and seafood safety; threatened habitats and endangered species; and climate change and the oceans. He is also manager of the Ocean Acidification – International Coordination Centre funded under the IAEA’s Peaceful Uses Initiative. Formerly with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi and The Hague, he was Coordinator of the 1995 Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities and Coordinator of UNEP’s Ecosystem Management Programme. A national of Australia, he has qualifications in both environmental science and environmental law. He has held director posts at the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and the Australian Government’s Department of the Environment and Water Resources, and has served as an Advisor to the Australian Government Minister for the Environment. He was formerly an officer in the Royal Australian Navy.

    Mr. Petteri Taalas
    Secretary-General, World Meteorological Organization
    Mr. Petteri Taalas

    Secretary-General, World Meteorological Organization

    Professor Taalas is the Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). He was elected in May 2015 for a mandate running from 2016 to 2019. He was born in 1961 in Helsinki, Finland. He holds a PhD in Meteorology (Helsinki University, Physics Department 1993, University of Eastern Finland: meteorology, physics, physical chemistry and international development).

    Before joining WMO he was the Director-General of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) 2002-2005, 2007-2015 (National weather, climate and marine Institute).

    He has also held positions in international development and scientific fields:

    ● Director of Development and Regional Activities Department of WMO 2005-2007
    ● Research professor on Remote Sensing/FMI 2000-2002
    ● Senior scientist/scientist at the FMI 1986-1999

    He is or has been also a Member of various international bodies:

    ● Member of WMO Executive Council 2008-2015
    ● Chairman of EUMETSAT Council 2010-2014 (European Meteorological Satellite Organization)
    ● Chairman of EUMETNET Council 2003-2005
    ● Member of ECMWF Council 2002-2005, 2007-2015
    ● Principal Delegate of Finland to IPCC 2007-2015 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
    ● Member of American Meteorological Society 2007-2014
    ● Honorary Doctor, Teri University, India 2016
    ● Honorary Member, China Meteorological Association 2015
    ● Chairman of the Board of University of Eastern Finland 2009-2015
    ● Member Board of Directors of Fortum Energy Company 2013-2015

    Ms. Carol Turley
    PML Senior Scientist, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
    Ms. Carol Turley

    PML Senior Scientist, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK

    Dr Carol Turley’s research has been centred on the ocean’s biogeochemical cycles looking at habitats from shallow and deep-sea sediments, estuaries, frontal systems to large enclosed waters. In the last 10 years she became interested in ocean acidification and was a member of The Royal Society Working Group on ocean acidification and a Lead Author on the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report on Climate Change and a Review Editor for the 5th IPCC Assessment Report. She was/is a member of the Executive Board of the EU funded European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA), the EU funded Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Climate (MedSeA) project and is the Knowledge Exchange Coordinator for the UK Ocean Acidification (UKOA) Research Programme funded by NERC, Defra and DECC. She is a member of the SOLAS-IMBER Ocean Acidification Working Group, chairs the Advisory Board for the Ocean Acidification-International Coordination Centre at the IAEA, Monaco and is a founding member of the international Ocean Acidification Reference User Group. She is a member of the international Science Advisory Boards for the German and US national ocean acidification programmes. She has contributed to stakeholder or policy targeted publications with MCCIP, WMO, The World Bank, UNEP, IUCN, IAEA and IOC-UNESCO. She has giving evidence to the UNFCCC SBSTA in Bonn and since 2009 presented at side-events at the annual UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties, at the Earth Summit Rio+20 in 2012, at the UN in New York in 2013 and the Convention on Biological Diversity COP in S. Korea in 2014. She spoke at the Ocean Acidification Panel, giving the science presentation at the Our Ocean Summit at the US State Department in 2014 attended by Heads of State from 80 countries. She briefs a wide range of interested global stakeholders including UK Government departments, Ministers and Chief Scientists on the latest science of ocean acidification, warming and deoxygenation and has presented in the Houses of Parliament and European Parliament. She has published and presented on a wide range of topics within the field of ocean acidification, ranging from its cause, chemistry, impacts and the potential social, economic and political consequences. She has over 130 peer reviewed publications and has been an invited speaker at numerous international conferences. She received an OBE for services to science in the 2011 New Year’s Honors List.

    Ms. Rahanna Juman
    Deputy Director, Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago
    Ms. Rahanna Juman

    Deputy Director, Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago

    Dr Rahanna Juman is the Deputy Director (Ag.) at the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA); a government funded marine research institute in Trinidad and Tobago. She holds a PhD in Zoology from the University of the West Indies, St Augustine and a Bachelor of Law from the University of London. Dr Juman has been conducting applied research on coastal ecosystems in Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean region for the past 20 years. She has published research in international journals and has written a book on wetlands of Trinidad and Tobago. She was a Hubert Humphrey fellow from 2010-2011, a Watson International Scholars of the Environment Fellow (2008), an American Fellow (2006) and a UNESCO/ L’OREAL Fellow (2002) and has done internship at the USEPA and NOAA in the US.

    Statements
    Statements
    Presentations
    Statements
    France
    Holy See
    Iceland
    New Zealand
    Vanuatu
    Zero Vision Tool
    Presentations
    Mr. David Osborn, Director of the IAEA Environment Laboratories
    Mr. Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General, World Meteorological Organization
    Ms. Carol Turley, PML Senior Scientist, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
    Ms. Rahanna Juman, Deputy Director, Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago