The development of effective area-based conservation measures in Brazilian marine jurisdictional areas aims to promote sustainable development, improve knowledge and harmonize economic activities with nature conservation. It will support the implementation of sustainable development objectives and goals through nature conservation strategies including: connectivity between coastal and marine ecosystems; strengthening coastal conservation measures and extending these seawards; integrating and strengthening role of local/traditional communities in biodiversity conservation; promoting fisheries sustainability; adapting to climate change and ensuring provision of other ecosystem services, bearing in mind potential mitigation benefits.
Effective area-based conservation measures will be implemented through activities that promote economic development and conservation of natural resources, complementing existing protected areas, including additional effective conservation measures (in pursuance to Aichi Targets) based on seascape, zoning and sustainable production approaches by: perfecting, when required, conservation instruments aimed at avoiding, mitigating and reducing risks to threatened species; supporting livelihoods of local/traditional communities; and improving scientific knowledge. The Government will identify areas where conservation measures should be enhanced, including the estuary of the Amazon River, the Abrolhos reef bank and the VitriaTrindade seamount chain, with due consideration to the economic activities in those regions.
Mangrove areas on the Amazon estuary from Parnaiba to Oyapock represent approximately 80% of total Brazilian mangrove area. This ecosystem complex includes key biodiversity areas for dozens of Nearctic migratory bird species, 2 manatee species and 78 threatened species of fauna and flora, relevant ecosystem services for fisheries nursing grounds, accumulation of carbon and coastal protection. Considerable knowledge gaps remain, including related to a recently-discovered large reef system facing the Amazon river mouth as well as one of the most important mangrove areas globally. Also covered are the contiguous extensive mud floors in front of the mouth of the Amazon River, known as Lixeira or natural debris area, rich in macroalgae and an important nursery area for many fish species and shrimp.
The Abrolhos Reef Bank is located on Brazils continental shelf and harbours the highest levels of biodiversity in South Atlantic waters and the worlds largest rhodolith bed. It presents a mosaic of different habitats such as mangroves, seagrass meadows, rhodolith beds, submerged and emergent reefs, and a group of small volcanic islands. Abrolhos also has unique biological formations such as the large mushroom-shaped reef formations (chapeires), and unique geological formations such as the buracas (distinctive depressions in the shelf plain). Closer to the coastal area there is a tradition of engaging local and traditional communities and peoples in de facto co-management of protected areas.
The Vitria-Trindade Chain of Seamounts is one of the major green turtle breeding grounds in the Atlantic and contains at least 11 endemic fish species, 02 endemic species of calcareous algae, and likely the worlds sole breeding site for the Trindade petrel. This area includes the largest breeding grounds of humpback whales in the South Atlantic, 04 endemic coral species, 13 endemic marine fish species and important breeding colonies for dozens of seabirds, including 123 threatened species.
National regional and complementary sites Ramsar recognitions
Consolidation of existing federal marine protected areas
Consolidation of all existing MPAs in identified priority areas
Identification of priority areas where conservation measures should be enhanced