Brazil has 159 threatened species in marine landscapes: 98 fish species (19 are endemic), 20 birds, 8 mammals, 5 reptiles and 29 invertebrates (13 are endemic). The National Strategy will identify and propose improvements to the conservation instruments needed to avoid, mitigate and reduce the present and potential threats to these species, such as conservation action plans, guidelines for environmental licensing and monitoring programs. The objective is that by 2020 100% of the threatened species are under protection by at least one conservation instrument.
Concerned with the need for a comprehensive approach for cetacean conservation in the South Atlantic Ocean, Brazil is proposing additional strategies that include the coordination of regional efforts to ensure the recovery of cetacean resources and their non-extractive and non-lethal use, including through a South Atlantic Whale Sanctuary under the International Whale Commission and actions in other related fora. The South Atlantic has 51 species of cetaceans - six of these (blue, fin, sei, Antarctic minke, humpback and southern right whales) are highly migratory baleen whales that feed in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic oceans during summer and breed in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in winter and spring in the South Atlantic Ocean. In line with the expanding scope of whale conservation and management, issues beyond the decisions on lethal takes may include present and potential threats to whale stocks and their habitats within the region, such as interactions with fisheries, entanglement, collisions with ships, contaminants, ingestion of debris, acoustic and noise pollution, hydrocarbon exploration, climate change, die offs, and others.
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets