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Integrated Coastal Management to Preserve Ecosystems Services, Improve Climate Resilience and Sustain Livelihoods in Fiji
by Department of Environment, Fiji (Government)
The objective of this voluntary commitment is promote sustainable development and implement more effective frameworks to manage Fijis coastal ecosystems and, as a result, protect the well-being and food security of Fijians in maritime regions.

Fijis coastal environment presents a great diversity and wealth of environmental resources, that, in itself, is a natural asset for food security, livelihoods, recreation and economic value for the country as a whole. Fiji's coastal environment is made up of an assemblage of resources including coral reefs, mangroves, beaches, and forests. These resources form the basis of the Fijian culture, employment, and food supply and therefore need to be well maintained to meet the needs of current and future generations.

An estimated 90% of Fijis 800,000 people are considered coastal dwellers. Despite increasing urbanisation, 54% of the population is rural, with local communities still heavily dependent on natural resources for subsistence and livelihoods. However, pressures from social and economic development, and threats such as urban and rural land use, pollution and waste management, unsustainable fishing practices, increasing tourism development and unsustainable agricultural practices are degrading Fijis coastal ecosystems, putting them at an even higher risk to climate change. In addition, existing laws, policies, regulations, and institutions relating to coastal zone management are inadequate to effectively manage this valuable national asset and address threats to Fijis coastal areas.

With guidance of the National Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) Framework, a model Integrated Coastal Management Plan (ICMP) was developed for the Province of Ra, Fiji. National guidelines were also developed for leading ICM processes, and developing provincial-scale ICMP, that take a ridge-to-reef approach to recognise the connectivity between land and sea. The ICMP serves as an overarching framework to implement new development opportunities, while addressing priority threats and issues in the province. A multi-stakeholder ICM Committee oversees and provides technical guidance on ICM processes and plans in Fiji.

Restoration of ecosystem services and adaptation to climate change by coastal communities is imperative to ensure healthy and sustainable livelihoods. Adaptation among coastal communities includes alternative waste management options, community and private sector wastewater management, freshwater fishing practices and community-based protected areas in rivers and streams; riparian buffer restoration; community-based Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within larger Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) and coastal fisheries enforcement; mangroves rehabilitation and protection; erosion-control; farming practices and cattle ranching; reforestation; and sustainable agroforestry models. Restoration efforts are already underway in the Province of Ra and Kadavu, Fiji.

Ridge-to-reef, or land-sea planning and management, integrates land, forest, water and coastal ecosystems, to preserve biodiversity, ecosystem services, store carbon, improve climate resilience and sustain livelihoods. Priority catchments encompass critical interphase between land, forests and freshwater system that have direct outflow to the ocean. Fiji contains a diverse range of coastal ecosystems with varying habitats, geographic environments and intensity of land use that provide an ideal suite of learning environments for biodiversity conservation, forest carbon stock protection and enhancement and integrated natural resources management.
Progress reports
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
Type of commitment
By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
Type of commitment
By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
Type of commitment
By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
Type of commitment
Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want
Type of commitment
December 2020
3. By 2020, with strong support from the Department of Environment, the Department of Lands will adopt and implement the Mangrove Management Plan to ensure the long-term protection and wise management of mangroves forests and the critical ecosystem services they provide to Fiji.
December 2030
1. By 2030, the Department of Environment will ensure that the national guidelines for the content, process, monitoring and evaluation for a National Integrated Coastal Management Plan is endorsed and adopted.
December 2030
2. By 2030, the Department of Environment will scale up implementation of the Provincial Integrated Management Plan, which supports sustainable development in ten provinces based on current and future development and ensures a balanced approach is taken that will not cause irreversible impacts to ecosystems and the communities who are dependent on them.
December 2030
4. By 2030, the Department of Environment, civil societies and participating communities in the Provinces of Ra, Kadavu Bua, Macuata, Cakaudrove, Lau, Naitasiri, Rewa, Nadroga and Ba will demonstrate appropriate methodology for adaptation and resilience among coastal communities in the context of global climate changes, strengthen and sustain integrated coastal management through restoration of ecosystem services to ensure healthy and sustainable livelihoods.
In-kind contribution
a) Asian Development Bank/Coral Triangle Initiative: Integrated Coastal Management Plan Phase 1 US$1.2m Phase 2: US$364,964.00
In-kind contribution
In collaboration with other partners the Department of Environment will continue to fundraise to support scaling up of ICMP at Provincial level (World Conservation Society US$50,000, In-kind US$30,000; Conservation International US$50,000)
Basic information
Time-frame: January 2017 - December 2030
Government: Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Fisheries, Ministry of Forestry, Department of Mineral Resources, Department of Lands, Department of Town and Country Planning, Department of Transport. Non-Government: Conservation International (CI), Fiji Environmental Law Association (FELA), Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), World Wildife Fund for Nature (WWF). Academia/ Research Institutions: University of the South Pacific (USP), Landcare Research New Zealand Staff Technical Expertise: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Fisheries, Ministry of Forests, Department of Town and Country Planning, Land Conservation and Improvement Board, National Wetlands Steering Committee, Native Land and Fisheries Committee, Department of Tourism, Ministry of iTaukei Affairs, iTaukei Affairs Board, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Department of Environment. Institute of Applied Sciences -University of the South Pacific (IAS-USP), Fiji Environment Law Association (FELA), Landcare Research New Zealand. Other: Technical support through the National Integrated Coastal Management Committee, Ra Integrated Coastal Management Committee, National Protected Areas Committee (under Department of Environment), Wetland Ramsar Committee and Marine Protected Area Technical Advisory Committee (under the Ministry of Fisheries), Mangrove Management Committee.
Ocean Basins
  • South Pacific
Beneficiary countries
Other beneficaries
General public, provincial staff, private sector
Contact information
Aminiasi Qareqare, Principal Environment Officer , aminiasi.qareqare@environment.gov.fj,
Suva, Fiji
Other SDGs
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