India has a comprehensive and ambitious ocean observing system in the seas around India for acquisition of multidisciplinary data with a view to contributing to scientific knowledge of the oceanographic process of the Indian Ocean. These are being achieved through national contribution and international coordination.
The primary purpose of accurate measurements of ocean parameters also contributes to a wide range of operational services including issue of early warnings. These observation systems have been deployed in various parts of the Indian Ocean through national program and international partnership.
The Ministry of Earth Sciences has a comprehensive ocean observations network to acquire real-time, time-series data on surface meteorological and upper oceanographic parameters from the seas around India including from the Indian Ocean Region.
A wide range of ocean observation systems are deployed in different parts of the Indian Ocean for acquisition of specific ocean parameters on different spatial and temporal scales. These include moored buoys, drifters, current meters, wave rider buoys, Argo floats, tide gauges, coastal radars, acoustic Doppler current profilers.
India has deployed over 300 argo floats in the Indian Ocean and maintains over 19 moorings for time-series data. With the collaboration of USA, 70% of planned observation systems in the equatorial Indian ocean called RAMA (Research Moored Array for Africa-Asia-Australia Monsoon Analysis) has been achieved during the last 5 years. 10 years ago, there were no such moorings in the Indian Ocean.
India has also launched Ocean Satellite for applications to monitor the ocean colour and committed to launch 3rd satellite of Ocean colour monitor.
India has strongly committed to augment and maintain the ocean observation network in the Indian Ocean to help increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity which will also be particularly useful for small island developing states and least developed countries in the region. An amount of US$ 70 million is being invested annually for this purpose.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information system (ITIS) of the Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE) based in Kochi has been recognized as regional node of International Ocean Bio-geographic Information System (IOBIS) of Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).
As part of this system, about 120,000 records of marine species occurrence from the northern Indian Ocean have been inventoried from primary (actual specimens observation) and secondary (literature) sources and archived as database.
A new species of pycnogonid namely Ascorhynchus levissimus was reported for the first time from the Northern Indian Ocean. Besides that, an enigmatic sea pen namely Gyrophyllum sp. and a mushroom coral namely Anthomastus grandiflorus were reported off Nicobar waters.
Under the Census of Marine Life (CoML) program which was initiated for resolving taxonomic ambiguities amongst cryptic species, about 800 deep sea samples were collected, taxonomically identified and tissues of them were stored suitably for sequencing and further to develop barcodes. Initially, barcodes were developed for Hyalinoecia tubicola, Lysirude channeri, Bregmaceros nectabanus, Mitrella bicincta, Plesionika martia, Fissidentalium proforundum and Amphiophiura sordida.
India continues to augment the INDOBIS database.
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries