Fishery is very important for food security and poverty alleviation of Myanmar people. Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture are very important for the rural people to fulfill the nutrition, their livelihood and their income generation. Myanmar is a country important in fish production that is not only marine fish production but also in inland fish production. Myanmar has been implementing to combat IUU fishing by the Myanmar marine Fisheries Laws (1990) and the Laws relating to the fishing right of foreign vessel (1989). These laws are based on the Territorial Sea and Maritime Zone Law which is in line with United Nations Convention law of the Sea. The provisions described in these laws are also complied with the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
Fisheries in has three categories such as inland capture fishery, marine capture fisheries and aquaculture. Of these marine and freshwater fisheries plays vital role for food fish supply, livelihood and foreign exchange income for the country. Myanmar is a member of the United Nations Convention Law of the Sea 1982 and ratified this law in 1996. Myanmar accepted the United Nations Compliance Agreement in 1994. Myanmar is also a party of FAO Agreement on Port State Measures on 22nd November, 2010. Department of Fisheries has prepared the draft paper of Myanmar National Plan of Action combating Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing - IUU.
As a port state country, Myanmar does not allow any fishing vessel entering the Myanmar waters, engage in fisheries, loading, unloading, processing and transferring of fish and fishing implement in the country and it is already enacted in the law relating to the fishing right of foreign fishing vessels' section 31, 32, 33 in accordance with the port state measure agreement - PSMA. Myanmar designates the ports which are to land and inspect for foreign and local fishing vessels along the coastal area. There are 14 check points for local fishing vessel and 7 check points for foreign fishing vessels.
Following the adoption of "the Future We Want" resolution by 193 countries (including Myanmar), the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDGs aim to address and incorporate the three dimensions of sustainable development (environment, economics and society) and their inter-linkages. 17 SDGs have been identified that are action-oriented, inspirational and universally applicable.
Important global-level policy instruments that guide fisheries policy development in Myanmar include:
FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) - The CCRF has been adopted by 170 countries, including Myanmar, and sets out principles, goals and elements of action, representing a global consensus on a wide rang of fisheries and aquaculture issues. It is intended to support governments in developing and strengthening their national fisheries policies and legislation towards conservation and sustainable management.
Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Small Scale Fisheries (VG-SSF) - Developed as a complement to the CCRF, these guidelines are the first internationally agreed upon instrument fully dedicated to the small-scale fisheries sector. They place a high priority on the realization of human rights and provide consensus principles and guidance towards sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication.